Management as a Process, Discipline and Science
The definition of management is a broad one. It is a process, a discipline, and science. Both in a layman terms management is the act of coordinating, directing or overseeing a project, resources or individuals with the aim of achieving the targeted results. And when performed efficiently, it can bring about growth in any organization.
But when management is faulty, it is likely going to reflect in other aspects of the company. In this post, we will take a broad look at management as a process, discipline and science to have a better understanding of the concept.
Management as a Process
Management is a process embarked upon with the sole aim of achieving a purpose. That purpose could be to increase the client base of the firm, develop the knowledge, skills and capacity of employees, or to achieve a specific sales target.
Managers placed at the helm of affairs in an organization need to follow due process to set goals and come up with plans on how to achieve results. And both the planning and execution phases involve due processes which the manager must abide by, strictly.
Management as a process also involves interrelated activities by which the administration within an organization develops and controls the resources of the organization to achieve targeted results.
The following points indicates why management is a process:
- Management and the Social Process – It is appropriate to say management is a social process because it does not only involve the control and use of financial resources alone. Human resources are also relevant for an organization to achieve its targeted goals. Therefore, the well being and state of mind of the people or employees within the organization is of utmost importance too. And, as a result, management being a social process seeks to develop a comfortable work environment that promotes healthy relationships amongst the employees within the firm.
- Management and the Integrating Process – Management also involves the integrating process whereby human resources work together in harmony to achieve the firm’s objective. It also deals with the integration of both human and financial resources and also making sure that both factors are put to good use so the firm can achieve the targeted goal.
- Management and the Never Ending Process – Management is a process that will never end as long as the organization remains. There will always be projects, goals, and challenges managers would push themselves to solve at some point in time. So, it’s a continuous process that will never come to an end.
Management as a Discipline
Excitingly, management is also a discipline, and there are proofs to support this claim. It involves the study of practices and principles required to carry out official administrative duties, and also highlight the code of conduct managers need to follow in the discharge of their responsibilities.
Management also concerns itself with the manner in which the resources of the organization can be effectively and efficiently utilized to achieve the objective of the said firm.
There are various methods a manager can run the affairs of an organization. And management highlights the different ways and tools available to move the enterprise forward. And, as with other courses of study or discipline, management is also being taught in various institutes and universities around the world.
Management programs have their durations. Also, after obtaining a diploma certificate or higher degree, people can secure employment as managers in any firm. There are also opportunities for managers to increase their knowledge and qualification by pursuing a higher degree or certification in management.
What makes management a discipline is the fact that it satisfies the requirements and criteria that other branch or knowledge or courses called discipline, has. One of the conditions involves the transfer of knowledge which management is done by thinkers and scholars who spend the time to conduct research and provide information that guides practicing managers and management students undergoing management training.
Another thing that can qualify management to be a discipline like other fields is if the knowledge is passed on to management students or wannabe managers via education or training programs.
Management as Science
Management is also a science. It involves everything used in classifying a field as science. For instance, science establishes cause and effect relationship between variables. It also takes into account, the principles that bind the variables in question.
However, scientific principles are established via the usual scientific methods which involve testing. And this process includes the observation and verification done through a series of testing.
There are numerous features used to characterize science and management. One of them is that scientific principles are universally accepted. In other words, scientific laws are the same throughout the world and in every situation. Management, on the other hand, has its fundamental principles which are universally accepted and applied in every circumstance or company. An example of this is the Principle of Unity of Command.
Another feature that indicates that science and management are the same is the manager in which scientific principles are obtained. Before a principle becomes generally accepted, it has to pass through certain scientific investigation and research. However, management principles also involve the same process.
Before management principles are arrived at, scientific enquiry and observation are carried out. And this might also include practical experiences drawn from a large number of managers or experiments conducted.
The cause and effect relationship is another feature that defines management and science as one. In scientific principles, the relationship between cause and effect is vital. For example, the heating of metal will cause it to expand. The cause is the heat applied while the effect is the expansion experienced.
The same thing applies in management. For example, it has been established that in companies where there is no balance between authority and responsibility, there will be ineffectiveness.
The explanation above is clear enough. It depicts management as a process, discipline and science. As a process, management is never-ending. It will continue to be relevant in every industry. If management is not efficient, it would be difficult for companies to achieve their goals.