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Cyber Law

Cyber Law Cyber law refers to the law that governs the use of communication technology, mainly the Internet. It is a mix of all laws concerning intellectual property, freedom of expression, privacy and jurisdiction. When it comes to the Internet, the lack of clarity with regard to geographical boundaries and jurisdictions can pose a problem. … Read more

Intellectual Property Rights

Intellectual Property Rights In the language of law, intellectual property is a term used to refer to certain legal claims, rights or dues in relation to certain inventions, names or titles, written and recorded media. The people who own these legal entitlements may exercise rights that are specific to the subject or content of the … Read more

Debt Crisis Management

Debt Crisis Management After World War II country risk became an issue of prime concern for the international financial community. Various methods have been used by the risk rating agencies to determine the extent of country risk, integrating a range of qualitative and quantitative information on alternative measures of political, economic and financial risk to … Read more

Foreign Exchange Rate

Foreign Exchange Rate Exchange rates are volatile and open short or long currency positions can lead to sizable losses. The foreign exchange rate measures the price of one currency in terms of another. A convertible currency can legally be exchanged for another convertible currency at a given rate of exchange. A currency could be partially … Read more

Purchasing Power Parity

Purchasing Power Parity Purchasing power parity (PPP) is an important and recurrent concept in international finance. Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a theory which states that exchange rates between currencies are in equilibrium when their purchasing power is the same in each of the two countries. This means that the exchange rate between two countries … Read more

Role of WTO

Role of  WTO On January I, 1995, the first and most powerful world trade regulating agency, namely World Trade Organization (WTO) came into existence. The WTO is the umbrella organization responsible for overseeing the implementation of all agreements that have been negotiated just before it came into existence. It is also responsible for the settlement … Read more

Role of IMF

Role of IMF The IMF (International Monetary Fund) is responsible for ensuring the stability of the international monetary and financial system of international payments and exchange rates among national currencies that enables trade to take place between countries. The Fund seeks to promote economic stability and prevent crises; to help resolve crises when they do … Read more

EPRG Framework

EPRG Framework The way businesses and staff view the world is described as international management orientations. Howard Perlmutter identified a way of classifying alternative management orientations, which is commonly referred as Perlmutter’s  EPRG model. He states that businesses and their staff tend to operate in one of four ways: Ethnocentric These people or companies believe … Read more

Basic of International Trade

Basic of International Trade A country specializes in a specific commodity due to mobility, productivity, and other endowments of economic resources. This stimulates a country to go for international trade. The basis of international trade lies in the diversity of economic resources in different countries. All countries are endowed by nature with the same production … Read more

International Marketing

International Marketing The process of penetrating an international market is a difficult task for most companies in the current international business environment. Most companies, even multinationals, still identify this task as an Achilles’ heel in their global capabilities. Generally in the start-up phase most firms lack experience in sales, marketing infrastructure and knowledge of the … Read more