Management as a Science
Management is also a Science. It involves everything used in classifying a field as science. For instance, science establishes cause and effect relationship between variables. It also takes into account, the principles that bind the variables in question.
However, scientific principles are established via the usual scientific methods which involve testing. And this process includes the observation and verification done through a series of testing.
There are Numerous Features Used to Characterize Science and Management.
- Scientific Principles are Universally Accepted
One of them is that scientific principles are universally accepted. In other words, scientific laws are the same throughout the world and in every situation. Management, on the other hand, has its fundamental principles which are universally accepted and applied in every circumstance or company. An example of this is the Principle of Unity of Command.
- Scientific Inquiry and Observation
Another feature that indicates that science and management are the same is the manager in which scientific principles are obtained. Before a principle becomes generally accepted, it has to pass through certain scientific investigation and research. However, management principles also involve the same process.
Before management principles are arrived at, scientific inquiry and observation are carried out. And this might also include practical experiences drawn from a large number of managers or experiments conducted.
- The Cause and Effect Relationship
The cause and effect relationship is another feature that defines management and science as one. In scientific principles, the relationship between cause and effect is vital. For example, the heating of metal will cause it to expand. The cause is the heat applied while the effect is the expansion experienced.
The same thing applies in management. For example, it has been established that in companies where there is no balance between authority and responsibility, there will be ineffectiveness.